• Prokrastynacja. O przyczynach i skutkach odkładania spraw na potem

Prokrastynacja. O przyczynach i skutkach odkładania spraw na potem

  • Wydawca: Difin
  • ISBN: 978-83-8085-754-4
  • Data wydania: 2019
  • Liczba stron/format: 342/B5
  • Oprawa: miękka

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Dostępność: Duża ilość na magazynie

Najbardziej znaną, przynajmniej czytelnikom literatury pięknej, prokrastynatorką była bohaterka powieści Margaret Mitchell Przeminęło z wiatrem, Scarlet O’Hara, która często powtarzała „Nie chcę o tym teraz myśleć. Pomyślę o tym jutro”.

W ostatnich latach odnotowuje się znaczny wzrost osób mających problem z terminowym wywiązywaniem się z obowiązków, tzw. prokrastynatorów. Prokrastynacja definiowana jest jako irracjonalne zwlekanie. Jedną z możliwych przyczyn narastania zachowań prokratynacyjnych jest industrializacja i rozwój nowoczesnych technologii. Sprzyja to wprawdzie multizadaniowości, tak oczekiwanej przez pracodawców. Ale jednocześnie prowadzi do licznych przeciążeń o charakterze psychologicznym.

Prezentowana monografia zawiera charakterystykę zjawiska, omówienie psychologicznych, somatycznych, społecznych i ekonomicznych kosztów, jakie ponoszą prokrastynatorzy.

Spis treści:

Podziękowania
Wstęp

Rozdział 1. Istota prokrastynacji

1.1. Co nie jest prokrastynacją
1.1.1. Czym zatem jest prokrastynowanie?
1.2. Definicje prokrastynowania
1.2.1. Próba rozstrzygnięcia problemów definicyjnych
1.3. Wskaźniki prokrastynowania
1.3.1. Zbędne opóźnianie
1.3.2. Rozbieżność między intencją a działaniem
1.3.3. Negatywne emocje
1.3.4. Irracjonalny charakter
Podsumowanie

Rozdział 2. Typologia

2.1. Prokrastynacja akademicka, codzienna i neurotyczna
2.2. Prokrastynacja zadaniowa, decyzyjna i behawioralna
2.3. Prokrastynacja adaptacyjna i problemowa (nieadaptacyjna)
2.4. Prokrastynacja unikowa i pobudzeniowa
2.5. Prokrastynacja aktywna
2.5.1. Krytyka koncepcji prokrastynacji aktywnej
2.6. Inne typologie
2.7. Prokrastynacja – zjawisko wielo- czy jednowymiarowe
2.8. Z czego wynikają problemy w ustaleniu typów prokrastynacji
Podsumowanie

Rozdział 3. Epidemiologia i demograficzne uwarunkowania zachowań prokrastynacyjnych

3.1. Analizy epidemiologiczne
3.1.1. Wiek
3.1.2. Płeć
3.1.3. Sytuacja rodzinna
3.1.4. Rodzaj wykonywanej praca
3.1.5. Inteligencja
3.1.6. Efekt kohortowy
Podsumowanie

Rozdział 4. Etiologia

4.1. Cztery perspektywy
4.1.1. Perspektywa pierwsza: podejście kliniczne
4.1.2. Perspektywa druga: różnice indywidualne
4.1.3. Perspektywa trzecia: podejście sytuacyjne
4.1.3.1. Czynniki osobiste i sytuacyjne
4.1.3.2. Lęk przed statystyką
4.1.4. Perspektywa czwarta: motywacja
4.2. Inne uwarunkowania prokrastynacji
4.2.1. Źródła genetyczne i środowiskowe
4.2.2. Funkcje wykonawcze (executive function – EF)
4.2.2.1. Udział struktur mózgowych w regulacji funkcjami wykonawczymi (EF)
4.2.2.2. Funkcje wykonawcze a różnice indywidualne
4.2.2.3. Jedność i różnorodność funkcji wykonawczych
4.2.2.4. Funkcje wykonawcze a zachowania prokrastynacyjne
4.3. Co jeszcze wiadomo na temat przyczyn prokrastynowania?
4.3.1. Sumienność
4.3.2. Dążenie do nagrody
4.3.3. Myślenie kontrfaktyczne
4.3.3.1. Model refleksji i oceny Markmana i McMullena
4.3.3.2. Cele promocyjne i prewencyjne w myśleniu kontrfaktycznym
4.3.3.3. Myślenie kontrfaktyczne a prokrastynacja
4.3.4. Poziom reprezentacji
4.3.5. Typ zadania
4.3.6. Obniżona wydajność
4.3.7. Orientacja na cel
Podsumowanie

Rozdział 5. Osobowościowe uwarunkowania zachowań prokrastynacyjnych

5.1. Cechy osobowości a osiągnięcia akademickie
5.2. Cechy osobowości jako predyktor zachowań prokrastynacyjnych
5.2.1. Ekstrawersja a skłonność do prokrastynowania
5.2.2. Prokrastynacja a ugodowość
5.2.3. Prokrastynacja a sumienność
5.2.3.1. Sumienność i prokrastynacja a wyniki w nauce
5.2.4. Prokrastynacja a neurotyczność
5.2.5. Prokrastynacja a otwartość na doświadczenia
5.3. Typologia prokrastynowania w kontekście cech osobowości
Podsumowanie

Rozdział 6. Samoregulacja i samokontrola

6.1. Samoregulacja i samokontrola – różnice w konceptualizacji
6.1.1. Samoregulacja
6.1.2. Samokontrola
6.2. Samoregulacja we wczesnym przebiegu rozwoju
6.2.1. Wpływ doświadczeń społecznych na regulację zachowania
6.2.2. Samoregulacja a mowa egocentryczna
6.3. Samokontrola i samoregulacja a zmiana zachowania
6.3.1. Neurokognitywne podejście do regulacji zachowania
6.3.2. Behawioralne podejście do regulacji zachowania
6.3.3. Regulacja zachowania w kontekście asymetrii skojarzeń
6.3.4. Teoria deficytu samokontroli H. Schouwenburga
6.4. Fazy procesu samoregulacji
6.5. Strategie samoregulacyjne a realizacja celów
Podsumowanie

Rozdział 7. Motywacja i orientacja temporalna

7.1. Temporalne mechanizmy zwlekania
7.2. Motywacja – najważniejsze zagadnienie badawcze najbliższych lat
7.3. Model TMT Steela i Königa w wyjaśnianiu zachowań prokrastynacyjnych
7.3.1. Zastosowanie temporalnej teorii motywacji w wyjaśnianiu zachowań prokrastynacyjnych i krytyka koncepcji Steela
Podsumowanie

Rozdział 8. Prokrastynacja w modelu ewolucji historii życia

8.1. Model ewolucji historii życia
8.1.1. Kontinuum adaptacyjne LHE
8.2. Elementy mechanizmu adaptacyjnego
8.2.1. Mózgowe uwarunkowania mechanizmu adaptacyjnego
8.2.2. Zmiana epigenetyczna strategii adaptacyjnej
8.2.3. Wielodeterminacyjność zachowań adaptacyjnych: model LHE a zmiany społeczno-kulturowe
8.3. Zastosowanie modelu ewolucji historii życia (LHE) w diagnostyce dysfunkcji i zaburzeń
8.4. Model LHE a zachowania prokrastynacyjne
8.5. Strategie adaptacyjne LHE a przetwarzanie poznawcze
Podsumowanie

Rozdział 9. Strategie prewencyjne i pomocowe

9.1. Zaburzenia czy różnice indywidualne, od genomiki do genomiki funkcjonalnej
9.2. Zwlekanie a zaburzenia osobowości
9.3. Kliniczne aspekty prokrastynacji
9.3.1. Lęk przed niepowodzeniem
9.3.2. Awersyjność zadania i osłabiona odporność na frustrację
9.4. Terapia
9.4.1. Trzy klasyczne podejścia w terapii
9.4.2. Terapie zorientowane na cel
9.4.3. Propozycja Schouwenburga dotycząca terapii zachowań prokrastynacyjnych
Podsumowanie

Wnioski końcowe
10.1. Prokrastynacja z perspektywy modelu rozchodzących się fal
10.2. Prokrastynacja w metaforze

Bibliografia

Prof. dr hab. Piotr Oleś:

Prokrastynacja jako zjawisko życia psychicznego i zachowania osadzona została w szerokim kontekście wiedzy na temat aktywności celowej człowieka, samokontroli i wytrwałości, procesów rozwojowych i neurobiologicznych podstaw procesów i zachowań. Bardzo interesujące są zwięzłe, a zarazem wyczerpujące relacje z badań nad tym zjawiskiem i zjawiskami pokrewnymi, niezwykle interesujące kontr-intuicyjne wyniki. Wartość dodaną stanowi autorski model zjawiska zaprezentowany w finale książki. (...) Monografia z pewnością zainteresuje przedstawicieli nauk społecznych i medycznych, dla których kwestia skuteczności działania i samopoczucia człowieka, jakie się z tym wiąże ma istotne znaczenie. Sięgnąć po nią mogą szerokie rzesze studentów oraz ludzie uprawiający tzw. wolne zawody, dla których odwlekanie jest chlebem powszednim, a chęć uwolnienia się od tej irytującej właściwości jednym z nieosiągalnych celów osobistych. Zdecydowanie polecam do druku tę wartościową i interesującą monografię.

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