• Pomiędzy bezpieczeństwem a ryzykiem. Pozytywne konteksty rekreacji outdoorowej

Pomiędzy bezpieczeństwem a ryzykiem. Pozytywne konteksty rekreacji outdoorowej

  • Autor: Piotr Próchniak
  • Wydawca: Difin
  • ISBN: 978-83-8085-456-7
  • Data wydania: 2020
  • Liczba stron/format: 162/B5
  • Oprawa: miękka

Cena detaliczna

  • 45.00 zł

    40.50 zł

  • 10% taniej

  • Darmowa dostawa od 200 zł
  • Wysyłka w ciągu 24h

Dostępność: Duża ilość w magazynie

O ile strach i ryzyko stanowią integralną część tradycyjnych teorii rekreacji outdoorowej (rekreacji w bliskim kontakcie ze środowiskiem przyrody), o tyle nowsze propozycje akcentują nie tylko to, co ludziom w eksploracji świata przyrody zagraża, ale także to, co ich rozwija, wzmacnia czy przynosi satysfakcję pomimo różnorakich niebezpieczeństw. Stąd też w niniejszej książce rekreacja outdoorowa jest rozpatrywana w kontekście pozytywnych aspektów funkcjonowania jednostki, jej siły i odwagi do mierzenia się z żywiołami przyrody, pasji odkrywania, doświadczenia wolności w świecie natury czy poczucia spełnienia, będącego efektem konfrontacji z zimnem, gorącem, wiatrem, wodą czy grawitacją.

Książka może zainteresować przedstawicieli nauk społecznych: pedagogów, socjologów i psychologów. Treść książki może być także użyteczna dla osób interesujących się zagadnieniami geografii, turystyki czy kultury  fizycznej. Bez względu na preferowaną dziedzinę nauki, książkę polecamy
tym wszystkim, którzy w wolnym czasie  wyruszają na spotkanie przygody w dzikim świecie natury.

Spis treści:

Wstęp

Rozdział 1. Człowiek i przyroda


1.1. Teoria biofilii Edwarda O. Wilsona
1.2. Teoria przywracania uwagi Stephena Kaplana
1.3. Teoria redukcji stresu Richarda Ulricha
1.4. Korzyści z przebywania w środowisku przyrodniczym dla dobrostanu

Rozdział 2. Tradycyjne podejście do ryzykownej rekreacji  outdoorowej


2.1. Teoria Marvina Zuckermana
2.2. Teoria Michaela Aptera
2.3. Teoria Simona Priesta
2.4. Teoria Alana Ewerta
2.5. Teoria Seppo Iso-Aholi
2.6. Wielowymiarowość rekreacji outdoorowej

Rozdział 3. Nowe podejście do ryzykownej rekreacji outdoorowej


3.1. Rekreacja outdoorowa z perspektywy psychologii pozytywnej
3.1.1. Dobrostan hedonistyczny i eudajmonistyczny
3.1.2. Dobrostan afektywny
3.1.3. Dobrostan duchowy i egzystencjalny
3.2. Przepływ
3.3. Pozytywne zasoby w rekreacji
3.3.1. Kluczowe oceny
3.3.2. Kapitał psychologiczny
3.3.3. Orientacja pozytywna
3.4. Odwaga
3.5. Pasja
3.6. Konsekwencje rekreacji dla dobrostanu

Rozdział 4. Metodologia badań własnych

4.1. Wprowadzenie
4.2. Problemy badawcze i hipotezy
4.3. Narzędzia badawcze
4.4. Osoby badane i procedura badań

Rozdział 5. Pozytywne korelaty bezpiecznej i ryzykownej rekreacji outdoorowej


5.1. Pozytywne motywy a bezpieczna i ryzykowna rekreacja outdoorowa
5.2. Psychologiczny kapitał a bezpieczna i ryzykowna rekreacja outdoorowa
5.3. Dobrostan a bezpieczna i ryzykowna rekreacja outdoorowa

Rozdział 6. Pozytywne profile w bezpiecznej i ryzykownej rekreacji outdoorowej


6.1. Profile motywacji a bezpieczna i ryzykowna rekreacja outdoorowa
6.2. Profile kapitału psychologicznego a bezpieczna i ryzykowna rekreacja outdoorowa
6.3. Profile bezpiecznej i ryzykownej rekreacji outdoorowej a dobrostan

Rozdział 7. Pozytywne wyznaczniki bezpiecznej i ryzykownej rekreacji outdoorowej


7.1. Pozytywne motywy jako wyznaczniki bezpiecznej i ryzykownej rekreacji outdoorowej
7.2. Psychologiczny kapitał jako wyznacznik bezpiecznej i ryzykownej rekreacji outdoorowej
7.3. Bezpieczna i ryzykowna rekreacja outdoorowa jako wyznacznik dobrostanu
7.4. Model strukturalny bezpiecznej i ryzykownej rekreacji outdoorowej z perspektywy psychologii pozytywnej

Rozdział 8. Dyskusja

8.1. Pomiar bezpiecznej i ryzykownej rekreacji outdoorowej
8.2. Pozytywne motywy bezpiecznej i ryzykownej rekreacji outdoorowej
8.3. Uwarunkowania bezpiecznej i ryzykownej rekreacji outdoorowej
8.4. Profile osób podejmujących bezpieczną i ryzykowną rekreację outdoorową
8.5. Znaczenie bezpiecznej i ryzykownej rekreacji outdoorowej dla dobrostanu
8.6. Podsumowanie badań

Bibliografia
Aneks

dr hab. Dariusz Krok, prof. UO:

Dużą zaletą pracy jest empiryczne potwierdzenie wielowymiarowych i złożonych uwarunkowań i powiązań rekreacji w bliskim kontakcie ze środowiskiem przyrodniczym ze zmiennymi motywacyjnymi i osobowościowymi, a także ich konsekwencji dla dobrostanu psychicznego jednostki. Wyniki przeprowadzonych badań stanowią znaczący wkład do literatury dotyczącej problematyki sfer rekreacji bezpiecznej i ryzykownej oraz ich powiązań z innymi czynnikami psychologicznymi. Analizy przeprowadzone zostały rzeczowo i precyzyjnie, a jednocześnie w sposób przejrzysty i zrozumiały dla czytelnika, który może zweryfikować, jak doświadczany wypoczynek i rekreacja są powiązane z jego sferą motywacji, osobowości i dobrostanu.

Piotr Próchniak
doktor psychologii. Jego zainteresowania naukowe dotyczą aktywności jednostki w bliskim kontakcie ze środowiskiem przyrodniczym. Autor kilku monografii oraz kilkudziesięciu artykułów naukowych opublikowanych zarówno w naszym kraju, jak i w Stanach Zjednoczonych, Kanadzie oraz Europie Zachodniej. W ramach projektu dotyczącego postaw ludzi wobec środowiska przyrodniczego prowadzi badania we współpracy z Arctic University (Norwegia). Jest członkiem Adventure Tourism Research Association.

Addison,  T.,  Kremer,  J.,  Bell,  R.  (1998).  Understanding  the  psychology  of  pain  in
sport. Irish Journal of Psychology, 19(4), 486–503.
Albrecht,  G.A.  (2012).  Psychoterratic  conditions  in  a  scientific  and  technological
world. W: P. Kahn, P. Hasbach (red.), Ecopsychology: Science, totems, and the
technological species (s. 241–264). Massachusetts: MIT Press.
Alexander, M., Lester D. (1972). Fear of death in parachute jumpers. Perceptual and
Motor Skills, 34, 338.
Alessandri, G., Caprara, G.V., Tisak, J. (2012). The unique contribution of positive
orientation to optimal functioning: Further explo*rations. European Psycholo-
gist, 17, 44–54.
Allman, T.L., Mittelstaedt, R.D., Martin, B., Goldenberg, M. (2009). Exploring the
motivations of BASE jumpers: extreme sport enthusiasts. Journal of Sport & To-
urism, 14, 229–247.
Andre, E.K., Williams, N., Schwartz, F., Bullard, C. (2017). Benefits of Campus Out-
door Recreation Programs: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Outdoor Re-
creation and Educational Leadership, 9, 15–25.
Annerstedt, M., Jönsson, P., Wallergård, M., Johansson, G., Karlson, B., Grahn, Han-
sen, A.M., Währborg, P. (2013). Inducing Physiological Stress Recovery With
Sounds of Nature in a Virtual Reality Forest Results From a Pilot Study. Physio-
logy & Behavior, 118, 240-250.
Apter, M.J., Mallows R., Williams S. (1998). The development of the motivational
style profile. Personality and Individual Differences, 24(1), 7–18.
Apter, M., Batler, R. (1996). Gratuitous risk: A study of parachuting. W: S. Svebak,
M.J. Apter (red.), Stress and health: A reversal theory perspective (s. 119–129).
Washington, D.C.: Taylor & Francis.
Argyle, M. (2004). Psychologia szczęścia. Wrocław: Wydawnictwo Astrum.
Arystoteles (2000). Etyka Nikomachejska. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo PWN.
Avey,  J.B.,  Reichard,  R.J.,  Luthans,  F.,  Mhatre,  K.H.  (2011).  Meta-analysis  of  the
impact of positive psychological capital on employee attitudes, behaviors, and
performance. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 22, 127–152.132 Bibliografia
Balboni,  T.A.,  Paulk,  M.E.,  Balboni,  M.J.,  Phelps  A.C.,  Loggers  E.T.,  Wright  A.A.,
Block S.D., Lewis E.F., Peteet J.R., Prigerson H.G. (2010). Provision of spiritual
care to patients with advanced cancer: Associations with medical care and qu-
ality of life near death. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 28, 445–452.
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change.
Psychological Review, 84, 191–215.
Bandura, A. (2004). Health Promotion by Social-Cognitive Means. Health Education
and Behavior, 31, 143–164.
Boudreau,  P.,  Houge  Mackenzie,  S.,  Hodge,  K.  (2020).  Flow  states  in  adventure
recreation:  a  systematic  review  and  thematic  synthesis.  Psychology  of  Sport
& Exercise, 46, 101–111.
Baretta, D., Greco, A., Steca, P. (2017). Understanding performance in risky sport:
The role of self-efficacy beliefs and sensation seeking in competitive freediving.
Personality and Individual Differences, 117, 161–165.
Barlow, M., Woodman, T., Hardy, L. (2013). Great expectations: Different high-risk
activities satisfy different motives. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology,
105, 458–475.
Beck, A.T., Weissman, A., Lester, D., Trexler, L. (1974). The measurement of pessi-
mism: The Hopelessness Scale. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,
42, 861–865.
Beedie, P. (2003). Mountain guiding and adventure tourism: reflections on the cho -
reography of experience. Leisure Studies, 22, 147–167.
Berto, R. (2005). Exposure to restorative environments helps restore attentional ca-
pacity. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 25, 249–259.
Bialeschki, M.D., Henderson, K. (1993). Expanding Putdoor Opportunities for Wo-
men. Park and Recreation, 28(8), 1–12.
Block, J., Kremen, A.M. (1996). IQ and ego-resiliency: Conceptual and empirical
connections  and  separateness.  Journal  of  Personality  and  Social  Psychology,
70(2), 349–361.
Bodin, M., Hartig, T. (2003). Does the outdoor environment matter for psychological
restoration gained through running? Psychology and Sport Exercise, 4, 141–153.
Bonanno, G.A. (2005). Resilience in the face of potential trauma. Current Directions
in Psychological Science, 14, 135–138.
Bratton, R., Kinnear, G., Korolux, G. (1979). Why men climb mountains. Internatio-
nal Review for the Sociology of Sport, 4, 23–36.
Breivik,  G.  (1996).  Personality,  sensation  seeking  and  risk  taking  among  Everest
climbers. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 27, 308–320.
Bringslimark, T., Hartig, T., Patil, G.G. (2009). The psychological benefits of indoor
plants: A critical review of the experimental literature. Journal of Environmen-
tal Psychology, 29(4), 422–433.133 Bibliografia
Brookes, A. (2003). A critique of Neo-Hahnian outdoor education theory. Part one:
Challenges to the concept of „character building”. Journal of Adventure Educa-
tion and Outdoor Learning, 3(1), 49–62.
Brown, M., Fraser, D. (2009). Re-evaluating risk and exploring educational alternati-
ves. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 9, 61–77.
Brymer, E., Downey, G., Gray, T. (2009). Extreme sports as a precursor to environ-
mental sustainability. Journal of Sport Tourism, 14(2–3), 193–204.
Brymer, E., Gray, T. (2010). Developing an intimate „relationship” with nature thro-
ugh extreme sports participation. Leisure, 34(4), 361–374.
Brymer, E. (2010). Risk and extreme sports: A phenomenological perspective. An-
nals of Leisure Research, 13(1–2), 218–239.
Brymer, E., Oades, L.G. (2009). Extreme sports: a positive transformation in courage
and humility. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 49, 114–126.
Brymer, E., Downey, G., Gray, T. (2010). Extreme sports as a precursor to environ-
mental sustainability. Journal of Sport and Tourism, 14, 193–204.
Brymer, E., Schweitzer, R. (2013). The search for freedom in extreme sports: A phe-
nomenological exploration. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 14(6), 865–873.
Brymer,  E.,  Schweitzer,  D.  (2017).  Evoking  the  ineffable:  The  phenomenology
of extreme sports. Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice,
4(1), 63–74.
Brzozowski, P. (2010). Skala Uczuć Pozytywnych i Negatywnych SUPIN. Polska ada-
ptacja skali PANAS Davida Watsona i Lee Anny Clark. Podręcznik. Warszawa:
Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych Polskiego Towarzystwa Psychologicznego.
Buckley, R.C. (2006). Adventure tourism. Wallingford: CAB International.
Buckley, R. (2012). Rush as a key motivation in skilled adventure tourism: Resolving
the risk recreation paradox. Tourism Management, 33, 961–970.
Buckley, R. (2018). To Analyze Thrill, Define Extreme Sports. Frontiers in Psycho-
logy, 1–11.
Buss, D. (2005). Psychologia ewolucyjna. Jak wytłumaczyć społeczne zachowania
człowieka. Gdańsk: Gdańskie Towarzystwo Psychologiczne.
Byrnes, J.P., Miller, D.C., Schafer, W.D. (1999). Gender differences in risk taking:
A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 367–383.
Calhoon,  L.L.  (1998).  Explorations  into  biochemistry.  Personality  and  Individual
Differences, 9, 941–949.
Campbell, J.D., Yoon, D.P., Johnstone, B. (2010). Determining relationships betwe-
en physical health and spiritual experience, religious practices, and congre-
gational support in a heterogeneous medical sample. Journal of Religion and
Health, 49, 3–17.
Caprara, G.V. (2009). Positive orientation: Turning potentials into optimal functio-
ning. The Bulletin of the European Health Psychologist, 11(3), 46–48.134 Bibliografia
Caprara, G.V., Steca, P. (2005). Affective and social self-regulatory efficacy beliefs as
determinants of positive thinking and happiness. European Psychologist, 10(4),
275–286.
Caprara, G.V., Alessandri, G., Trommsdorff, G., Heikamp, T., Yamaguchi, S., Suzuki,
F. (2012). Positive Orientation across three cultures. Journal of Cross-Cultural
Psychology, 43, 77–83.
Carver, C.S., Scheier, M.F., Segerstrom, S.C. (2010). Optimism. Clinical Psychology
Review, 30, 879–889.
Castanier, C., Le Scanff, C., Woodman, T. (2011). Mountaineering as affect regu-
lation:  The  moderating  role  of  self-regulation  strategies.  Anxiety,  Stress,  and
Coping, 24(1), 75–89.
Celsi, R.L., Rose, R.L., Leigh, T.W. (1993). An exploration of high-risk leisure con-
sumption through skydiving. Journal of Consumer Research, 20(1), 1–23.
Cervinka, R., Roderer, K., Hefler, E. (2012). Are nature lovers happy? On various
indicators of well-being and connectedness with nature. Journal of Health Psy-
chology, 17, 379–388.
Cicognani, E., Zani, B. (2011). Alcohol use among Italian university students: The
role of sensation seeking, peer group norms and self-efficacy. Journal of Alcohol
and Drug Education, 55(2), 217–36.
Clark,  M.  (1986).  The  cultural  patterning  of  risk-seeking  behaviour:  Implications
for armed 17 conflict. W: M.L. Foster, R.A. Rubinstein (red.), Peace and war:
Cross-cultural perspectives (s. 79–90). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.
Comrey, A.L., Lee, H.B. (1992). A First Course in Factor Analysis (wyd. 2). Hillsdale,
NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Coon, J.T., Boddy, K., Stein, K., Whear, R., Barton, J., Depledge, M.H. (2011). Does
participating in physical activity in outdoor natural environments have a greater
effect on physical and mental wellbeing than physical activity indoors? A syste-
matic review. Environmental Science and Technology, 45, 1761–1772.
Crust, L., Henderson, H., Middleton, G. (2013). The acute effects of urban green
and countryside walking on psychological health: A field-based study of green
exercise. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 44, 160–177.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975). Beyond Boredom and Anxiety. San Francisco: Jossey-
-Bass.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1996). Przepływ. Jak poprawić jakość życia. Psychologia opty-
malnego doświadczenia. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Studio Emka.
Clough, P., Houge McKenzie, S., Mallabon, E., Brymer, E. (2016). Adventurous phy-
sical activity environments: a mainstream intervention for mental health, Sports
Medicine, 46(7), 963–968.
Cronin, Ch. (1991). Sensation seeking among mountain climbers. Personality and
Individual Differences, 12(6), 653–654. 135 Bibliografia
Cudeck,  R.  (2000).  Exploratory  factor  analysis.  W:  H.E.A.  Tinsley,  S.D.  Brown
(red.), Handbook of applied multivariate statistics and mathematical modeling
(s. 266–296). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Cui, L., Teng, X., Li, X., Oei, T.P.S. (2010). The factor structure and psychometric
properties of the Resiliency Scale in Chinese undergraduates. European Journal
of Psychological Assessment, 26, 162–171.
Czapiński, J. (2012). Psychologiczne teorie szczęścia. W: J. Czapiński (red.), Psy-
chologia  pozytywna.  Nauka  o  szczęściu,  zdrowiu,  sile  i  cnotach  człowieka 
(s. 51–102). Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
Daniel, R.M. (2014). The effects of the natural environment on attention restoration.
(Unpublished master’s thesis). Appalachian State University, Boone, NC.
Davids, K., Araujo, D., Brymer, E. (2016). Designing affordances for physical activity:
an ecological dynamics perspective. Sports Medicine, 46(7), 933–938.
D’Amato, L.G., Krasny, M.E. (2011). Outdoor Adventure Education: Applying Trans-
formative Learning Theory to Understanding Instrumental Learning and Per-
sonal Growth in Environmental Education. The Journal of Environmental Edu-
cation, 42, 237–254.
Demirhan, G. (2005). Mountaineers’ risk perception in outdoor-adventure sports:
a study of sex and sports experience. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 100(3 Pt 2),
1155–60.
de Vries, S., Verheij, R.A., Groenewegen, P.P., Spreeuwenberg, P. (2003). Natural envi-
ronments – healthy environments? An exploratory analysis of the relationship
between greenspace and health. Environment and Planning A, 35, 1717–1731.
Dickison, D.K. (1977). Characteristics of participants in high risk recreation. A stu-
dy of pain response and selected personality traits. Montana: niepublikowana
praca doktorska.
Dickson, T., Gray, T., Mann, K. (2008). Australian Outdoor Adventure Activity. Bene-
fits Catalogue. University of Canberra: Canberra, Australia.
Diener, E., Suh, E.M., Lucas, R.E., Smith, H.L. (1999). Subjective well-being: three
decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125(2), 276–302.
Diehm, A., Armatas, C. (2004). Surfing: An avenue for socially acceptable risk-ta -
king, satisfying needs for sensation seeking and experience seeking. Personality
and Individual Differences, 36(3), 663–677.
Diener, E., Lukas, R.E., Oishi, S. (2002). Subjective wellbeing. The science of happi-
ness and life satisfaction. W: C.R. Snyder, S.J. Lopez (red.), Handbook of positi-
ve psychology (s. 63–73). New York: Oxford University Press.
Diener, E., Oishi, S., Lucas, R.E. (2009). Subjective well-being: The science of hap-
piness and life satisfaction. W: C.R. Snyder, S.J. Lopez (red.), Handbook of posi-
tive psychology (wyd. 2, s. 187–194). Oxford: Oxford University Press.136 Bibliografia
Dodge, R., Daly, A.P., Huyton, J., Sanders, L.D. (2012). The challenge of defining
wellbeing. International Journal of Wellbeing, 2(3), 222–235.
Dodson, K.J. (1996). Peak experiences and mountain biking: Incorporating the bike
into the extended self. Advances in Consumer Research, 23, 317–322.
Drwal, R.Ł. (1995). Adaptacja kwestionariuszy osobowości. Warszawa: Wydawnic-
two Naukowe PWN.
Egan, S., Stelmack, M.R. (2003). A personality profile of Mount Everest climbers.
Personality and Individual Differences, 34(8), 1491–1494.
Ekman,  P.,  Davidson,  R.  (red.).  (2002).  Natura  emocji.  Podstawowe  zagadnienia.
Gdańsk: Gdańskie Wydawnictwo Psychologiczne.
Etzion, D., Eden, D., Lapidot, Y. (1998). Relief from job stressors and burnout: Rese-
rve service as a respite. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(4), 577–585.
Ewert, A. (1985). Why people climb: The relationship of participant motives and
experience level to mountaineering. Journal of Leisure Research, 17, 241–250.
Ewert, A. (1987). Models and Theories in Outdoor Adventure Recreation. Journal of
Outdoor Recreation Research, 4, 83–102.
Ewert, A., Hollenhorst, S. (1989). Testing the adventure model: empirical support
for a model of risk recreation participation. Journal of Leisure Research, 21(2),
124–139.
Ewert,  A.,  Garvey,  D.  (2007).  Philosophy  and  theory  of  adventure  education.  W:
D. Prouty, J. Panicucci, R. Collinson. Adventure education: Theory and applica-
tions (s.19–32). Leeds, UK: Human Kinetics.
Ewert, A., Sibthorp, J. (2009). Creating Outcomes Through Experiential Education:
The  Challenge  of  Confounding  Variables.  Journal  of  Experiential  Education,
31(3), 376–389.
Ewert, A., Yoshino, A. (2011). The influence of short-term adventure-based expe -
rience on levels of resilience. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Le-
arning, 11(1), 35–50.
Ewert, A., Gilbertson, K., Luo, Y.C., Voight, A. (2013). Beyond „because it’s there”
motivations  for  pursuing  adventure  recreational  activities.  Journal  of  Leisure
Research, 45(1), 91–111.
Fegg, M.J., Kramer, M., L’hoste, S., Borasio, G.D. (2008). The Schedule for Meaning
in Life Evaluation (SMiLE): Validation of a new instrument for meaning-in-life
research. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 35, 356–364.
Fennell, D.A. (2000). Ecotourism. An introduction. London, New York: Routledge.
Filep, S. (2016). Tourism and positive psychology critique: Too emotional. Annals of
Tourism Research, 59(C), 113–115.
Filep, S., Klint, L.M., Whitelaw, P., Dominey-Howes, D., Delacy, T. (2017). Happi-
ness,  satisfaction,  and  risk  perception.  Tourism  Review  International,  17(4),
283–298.137 Bibliografia
Fisher, J. (2011). The Four Domains Model: Connecting spirituality, health and well-
-being. Religions, 2, 17–28.
Foster, M.L. (1993). Reversal Theory and the institutionalization of war. W: J.H. Kerr,
S.J. Murgatroyd, M.J. Apter (red.), Advances in Reversal Theory (s. 67–74). Am-
sterdam: Swets & Zeitlinger.
Frankl, V.E. (1984). Homo patiens. Warszawa: Instytut Wydawniczy PAX.
Fredrickson, L.M., Anderson, D.H. (1999). A qualitative exploration of the wilder-
ness experience as a source of spiritual inspiration. Journal of Environmental
Psychology, 19, 21–39.
Frijda, N. (1998). Prawa emocji. Nowiny Psychologiczne, 2(61), 24–49.
Frumkin, H., Bratman, G.N., Breslow, S.J., Cochran, B., Kahn Jr, P.H., Lawler, J.J.,
Wood, S.A. (2017). Nature contact and human health: A research agenda. Envi-
ronmental Health Perspectives, 125(7), 23–37.
Gasparski, P. (2003). Psychologiczne wyznaczniki gotowości do przeciwdziałania za-
grożeniom. Warszawa: Instytut Wydawniczy PAN.
Gass, M.A., Gillis, H.L., Russell, K.C. (2012). Adventure Therapy: Theory. Research
and Practice. New York: Taylor and Francis.
Gibbons, J.L., Lynn, M. (1997). Cross-national gender differences in adolescents’
preferences for free-time activities. Cross-Cultural Research, 31(1), 55–69.
Giles,  D.,  Draper,  N.,  Gilliver,  P.,  Taylor,  N.,  Mitchell,  J.,  Birch,  L.,  Woodhead,  J.
(2014). Current understanding in climbing psychophysiology research. Sports
Technology, 7(3–4), 108–119.
Goma-i-Freixanet, M. (1991). Personality profiles of subjects engaged in high physi-
cal risk sports. Personality and Individual Differences, 12(10), 1087–1093.
Gomez, A.T., Rao, A. (2016). Adventure and extreme sports. Medical Clinics of North
America, 100(2), 371–391.
Grahn,  P.  (1991).  Landscapes  in  our  minds:  people’s  choice  of  recreative  places
in towns. Landscape Research, 16(1), 11-19.
Greitemeyer, T., Osswald, S., Fischer, P., Frey, D. (2007). Civil courage: Implicit the-
ories, related concepts, and measurement. The Journal of Positive Psychology,
2(2), 115–119.
Guéguen, N. (2011). „Say it with flowers”: The effect of flowers on mating attractive -
ness and behavior. Social Influence , 6, 105–112.
Griffith, J.D., Hart, C.L., Goodling, M., Kessler, J., Whitmire, A. (2006). Responses to
the Sports Inventory for Pain among BASE Jumpers. Journal of Sport Behavior,
29, 242–254.
Grinde, B., Patil, G.G. (2009). Does Visual Contact with Nature Impact on Health
and Well-Being. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public
Health, 6, 2332–2343.138 Bibliografia
Han, K. (2003). A reliable and valid self-rating measure of the restorative quality
of natural environments. Landscape and Urban Planning, 64, 209–232.
Hansen, E.B., Breivik, G. (2001). Sensation seeking as a predictor of positive and
negative risk behaviour among adolescents. Personality and Individual Diffe-
rences, 30, 627–640.
Hartig, T.A., Mang, M., Evans, G.W. (1991). Restorative effects of natural environ-
ment experience. Environment and Behavior, 23, 3–26.
Hattie, J., Marsh, H.W., Neill, J.T., Richards, G.E. (1997). Adventure education and
outward bound: Out-of-class experiences that make a lasting difference. Review
of Educational Research, 67, 43–87.
Hatfield, E., Walster, G.W., Berscheid, E. (1978). Equity: Theory and research. Bo-
ston: Allyn and Bacon.
Haviland-Jones, J., Rosario, H.H., Wilson, P., McGuire, T.R. (2005). An environmen-
tal approach to positive emotion: Flowers. Evolutionary Psychology, 3, 104–132.
Herzog, T.R., Black, A.M., Fountaine, K.A., Knotts, D.J. (1997). Reflection and at-
tentional recovery as distinctive benefits of restorative environments. Journal of
Environmental Psychology, 17, 165–170.
Heszen Niejadek, I., Grubczyńska, E. (2004). Wymiar duchowy człowieka, jego zna-
czenie w psychologii zdrowia i jego pomiar. Przegląd Psychologiczny, 47(1), 15–31.
Hetland, A., Eirik, K., Matthias, M., Joar, V. (2019). The thrill of speedy descents:
A pilot study on differences in facially expressed online emotions and retrospec-
tive measures of emotions during a downhill mountain-bike descent. Frontiers
in Psychology, 10(April), 1-12.
Hetland, A., Vittersø, J., Wie, S.O.B., Kjelstrup, E., Mittner, M., Dahl, T.I. (2018).
Skiing  and  thinking  about  it:  Moment-to-moment  and  retrospective  analysis
of emotions in an extreme sport. Frontiers in Psychology, 9(June), 1–16.
Higgins, E.T. (1987). Self-discrepancy: Theory relating self and affect. Psychological
Review, 94(3), 319–340.
Herzog, R.H., Black, A.M., Fountaine, K.A., Knotts, D.J. (1997). Reflection and at-
tentional recovery as distinctive benefits of restorative environments. Journal
of Environmental Psychology, 17, 165–170.
Hill, B.J. (1995). A guide to adventure travel. Parks and Recreation, 30(9), 56–65.
Hills, P., Argyle, M. (2002). The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire: a compact scale
for measurement of psychological well-being. Personality and Individual Diffe-
rences, 33, 1073–1082.
Hobfoll, S.E. (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing
stress. American Psychologist, 44, 513–524.
Hobfoll,  S.E.  (2006).  Stres,  kultura  i  społeczność.  Psychologia  i  filozofia  stresu. 
Gdańsk: Gdańskie Wydawnictwo Psychologiczne.
Holyfield, L., Fine, G.A. (1997). Adventure as character work: the collective taming
of fear. Symbolic Interaction, 20, 343–363.139 Bibliografia
Houge Mackenzie, S., Hodge, K., Boyes, M. (2013). The multiphasic and dynamic
nature  of  flow  in  adventure  experiences.  Journal  of  Leisure  Research,  45(2),
214–232.
Houge Mackenzie, S., Brymer, E. (2018). Conceptualising adventurous nature sport:
A positive psychology perspective. Annals of Leisure Research, 7, 23–34.
Hoyle,  R.H.,  Fejfar,  M.C.,  Miller,  J.D.  (2000).  Personality  and  sexual  risk-taking:
A quantitative review. Journal of Personality, 68, 1203–1231.
Huta, V., Waterman, A.S. (2014). Eudaimonia and its distinction from hedonia: de-
veloping a classification and terminology for understanding conceptual and ope -
rational definitions. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15, 1425–1456.
Hymbaugh, K., Garrett, J. (1974). Sensation seeking among skydivers. Perceptual
and Motor Skills, 38, 118.
Irwin, J. (1973). Surfing: the natural history of an urban scene. Urban Life and Cul-
ture, 2, 131–160.
Iso-Ahola, S. (1976). On the Theoretical Link Between Personality and Leisure. Psy-
chological Reports, 39, 3–10.
Iso-Ahola, S.E. (1980). The Social Psychology of Leisure and Recreation. Dubuque:
IA Wm C Brown.
Iso-Ahola, S.E., LaVerde, D., Graefe, A.R. (1989). Perceived competence as a me-
diator of the relationship between high risk sports participation and self-esteem.
Journal of Leisure Research, 21(1), 32–39.
Izenstark, D., Oswald, R.F., Holman, E.G., Mendez, S.N. (2016). Rural, Low-Income
Mothers’ Use of Family-Based Nature Activities to Promote Family Health. Jour-
nal of Leisure Research, 48, 134–155.
Jack, S.J., Ronan, K.R. (1998). Sensation seeking among high- and low-risk sports
participants. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 1063–1083.
Jackson, E.L., Henderson, K.A. (1995). Gender-based analysis of leisure constraints.
Leisure Sciences, 17, 31–51.
Jarosz, M. (2010). Pojęcie duchowości w psychologii. W: O. Gorbaniuk, B. Kostru-
biec-Wojtachnio, D. Musiał, M. Wiechetek, (red.), Studia z psychologii w KUL
(s. 9–22). Lublin: RW KUL.
Jones, C.D., Hollenhorst, S.J., Perna, F., Selin, S. (2000). Validation of the flow the -
ory in an onsite whitewater kayaking setting. Journal of Leisure Research, 32(2),
247–261.
Jones, M.V., Meijen, C., McCarthy, P.J., Sheffield, D. (2009). A theory of challenge
and threat states in athletes. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psycho-
logy, 2, 161–180.
Joye, Y., Dewitte, S. (2018). Nature’s broken path to restoration: A critical look at
Attention Restoration Theory. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 59, 1–8.
Joye, Y., Bolderdijk, J.-W. (2014). An exploratory study into the effects of extraordina -
ry nature on emotions, mood, and prosociality. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1577. 140 Bibliografia
Juczyński, Z. (2000). Poczucie własnej skuteczności – teoria i pomiar. Acta Universi-
tatis Lodziensis, 4, 11–24.
Judge, T.A., Locke, E.A., Durham, C.C. (1997). The dispositional causes of job satis-
faction: A core evaluations approach. Research in Organizational Behavior, 19,
151–188.
Judge, T.A., Erez, A., Bono, J.E., Thoresen, C.J. (2002). Are measures of self-esteem,
neuroticism, locus of control, and generalized self-efficacy indicators of a com -
mon core construct? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 693–710.
Kaczmarek, Ł. (2011). Skala Sprężystości Psychicznej – polska adaptacja Ego Resi-
liency Scale. Czasopismo Psychologiczne, 17(2), 263–265.
Kamiński, M. (2006). Moje bieguny. Dzienniki z wypraw 1990–1998. Gdańsk: Ide-
amedia.
Kahn, P.H. Jr., Severson, R.L., Ruckert, J.H. (2009). The human relation with nature
and technological nature. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 37–42.
Kahneman,  D.,  Diener,  E.,  Schwarz,  N.  (red.).  (1999).  Well-being:  Foundations
of hedonic psychology. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
Kaplan, R., Kaplan, S. (1989). The experience of nature: A psychological perspecti-
ve. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Kaplan, R. (1993). The role of nature in the context of the workplace. Landscape and
Urban Planning, 26, 193–201.
Kaplan, S. (1995). The restorative benefits of nature: Toward an integrative frame -
work. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 15, 169–182.
Kaplan, R. (2001). The nature of the view from home – Psychological benefits. Envi-
ronment and Behavior, 33(4), 507–542.
Kawachi, I., Subramanian, S.V., Kim, D. (red.). (2008). Social capital and health.
New York: Springer.
Keltner, D., Haidt, J. (2003). Approaching awe, a moral, spiritual, and aesthetic emo-
tion. Cognition & Emotion, 17, 297–314.
Kellert, S. (1993). Values and perceptions of invertebrates. Conservation Biology,
7(4), 845–855.
Kerr, J.H. (1991). Arousal seeking in risk sport participants. Personality and Indivi-
dual Differences, 12(6), 613–616.
Kerr, J.H., Svebak, S. (1989). Motivational aspects of preferences for, and partici-
pation in, „risk” and „safe” sports. Personality and Individual Differences, 10,
799–800.
Kerr, J.H., Houge Mackenzie, S. (2012). Multiple motives for participating in adven-
ture sports. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(5), 649–657.
Keyes, C.L.M., Shmotkin, D., Ryff, C.D. (2002). Optimizing well-being: The empi-
rical encounter of two traditions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
82(6), 1007–1022.141 Bibliografia
Klamut, R. (2002). Cel, czas, sens życia. Lublin: Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL
Koenig, H.G. (2008). Concerns about measuring „spirituality” in research. Journal
of Nervous Mental Disease, 196, 349–355.
Koivula, N. (1999). Sport participation: Differences in motivation and actual partici-
pation due to gender typing. Journal of Sport Behavior, 22, 360–381.
Kołodziej-Zaleska, A., Przybyła-Basista, H. (2018). Dobrostan psychiczny i jego po-
miar za pomocą polskiej wersji Oksfordzkiego Kwestionariusza Szczęścia. Czaso-
pismo Psychologiczne – Psychological Journal, 24(1), 87–97.
Kontos, A.P. (2004). Perceived risk, risk taking, estimation of ability and injury among
adolescent sport participants. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 29, 447.
Kopp, M., Wolf, M., Ruedl, G., Burtscher, M. (2016). Differences in sensation se-
eking between alpine skiers, snowboarders and ski tourers. Journal of Sports
Science & Medicine, 15(1), 11–16.
Korpela, K., Borodulin, K., Neuvonen, M., Paronen, O., Tyrväinen, L. (2014). Ana-
lyzing the mediators between nature-based outdoor recreation and emotional
well-being. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 37, 1–7.
Kossakowska, M., Kwiatek, P., Stefaniak, T. (2013). Sens w życiu. Polska wersja kwe-
stionariusza MLQ. Psychologia Jakości Życia, 12(2), 111–131.
Krok, D. (2011). Poczucie sensu życia a dobrostan psychiczny. Psychologia Jakości
Życia, 2, 95–115.
Krok, D. (2017). W poszukiwaniu znaczenia choroby nowotworowej. Opole: Wydaw-
nictwo Uniwersytetu Opolskiego.
Kuo, F.E. (2003). Social aspects of urban forestry: The role of aboriculture in a heal-
thy social ecology. Journal of Aboriculture, 29, 148–155.
Kuykendall, L., Boemerman, L., Zhu, Z. (2018). The importance of leisure for sub-
jective well-being. W: E. Diener, S. Oishi, L. Tay (red.), Handbook of well-being.
Salt Lake City: DEF Publishers.
Kweon, B.S., Walker, V., Ulrich, R., Tassinary, L. (2008). Anger and Stress The Role
of Landscape Posters in an Office Setting. Environment and Behavior, 40(3),
355–381.
Laman, T. (1952). Night shift in the rain forest. National Geographic, 4, 32–47.
Larson, R., Mannell, R., Zuzanek, J. (1986). Daily well-being of older adults with
friends and family. Psychology and Aging, 1, 117–126.
Lazarus, R.S. (2000). How emotions influence performance in competitive sports.
The Sport Psychologist, 14, 229–252.
Ledesma, R.D., Valero-Mora, P. (2007). Determining the Number of Factors to Reta-
in in EFA: an easy-to-use computer program for carrying out Parallel Analysis.
Practical Assessment, 12(2), 1–11.
Lee, S.-H., Graefe, A.R., Li, C.-L. (2007). The effects of specialization and gender
on motivation and preferences for site attributes in paddling. Leisure Sciences,
29, 355–373.142 Bibliografia
Levin, B.J., Taylor, J. (2011). Depression, Anxiety, and Coping in Surfers. Journal
of Clinical Sport Psychology, 5, 148–165.
Llewellyn, D.J., Sanchez, X. (2008). Individual differences and risk taking in rock
climbing. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 9, 413–426.
Lipscombe, N. (1995). Appropriate adventure for the aged. Australian Parks and
Recreation, 31(2), 41–45.
Libscombe, N. (1999). The relevance of the peak experience to continued skydiving
participation: A qualitative approach to assessing motivations. Leisure Studies,
18, 267–288.
Lopez,  S.J.,  O’Byrne,  K.K.,  Peterson,  S.  (2003).  Profiling  courage .  W:  S.J.  Lopez,
C.R. Snyder (red.), Positive psychological assessment: A handbook of models and
measures (s. 185–197). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Lorenz, T., Beer, C., Pütz, J., Heinitz, K. (2016). Measuring Psychological Capital:
Construction and Validation of the Compound PsyCap Scale (CPC-12). PLOS
ONE, 11(4), 1-17.
Lupton, D., Tulloch, J. (2002). „Life would be pretty dull without risk”: Voluntary
risk-taking and its pleasures. Health, Risk & Society, 4(2), 113–124.
Lucas, R.E., Diener, E., Suh, E. (1996). Discriminant validity of well-being measu-
res. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 616–628.
Luria, G., Torjman, A. (2009). Resources and coping with stressful events. Journal
of Organizational Behavior, 30, 685–707.
Luthans, F., Youssef, C.M. (2004). Human, social, and now positive psychological
capital management: Investing in people for competitive advantage. Organiza-
tional Dynamics, 33(2), 143–160.
Luthans,  F.,  Youssef,  C.M.,  Avolio,  B.J.  (2007).  Psychological  capital.  New  York:
Oxford University Press.
Luhmann, M., Hofmann, W., Eid, M., Lucas, R.E. (2012). Subjective well-being and
adaptation to life events: A meta-analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psy-
chology, 102(3), 592–615.
Lyng, S. (2005). Edgework and the risk-taking experience. W: S. Lyng (red.), Edge-
work: The Sociology of Risk-Taking (s. 17–49). New York: Routledge.
Lyubomirsky, S. (2001). Why are some happier than others? The role of cognitive and
motivational processes in well-being. American Psychologist, 56(3), 239–324.
Łaguna,  M.,  Trzebiński,  J.,  Zięba,  M.  (2005).  Kwestionariusz  Nadziei  na  Sukces.
Podręcznik. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów PTP.
Łukaszewski, W. (2003). Umysł smutny i zmęczony. W: Z. Piskorz, T. Zaleśkiewicz
(red.), Psychologia umysłu (s. 23–32). Gdańsk: Gdańskie Wydawnictwo Psycho-
logiczne.
MacPherson, L., Magidson, J.F., Reynolds, E.K., Kahler, C.W., Lejuez, C.W. (2010).
Changes  in  sensation  seeking  and  risk-taking  propensity  predict  increases 143 Bibliografia
in alcohol use among early adolescents. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental
Research, 34(8), 1400–1408.
Magni, G., Rupolo, G., Simini, G., De Leo, D., Rampazzo, M. (1985). Aspects of the
psychology  and  personality  of  high  altitude  mountain  climbers.  International
Journal of Sport Psychology, 16, 12–19.
Makarowski, R. (2008). Granice ryzyka. Paradygmat psychologiczny. Kraków: Wy-
dawnictwo Impuls.
Martela, F., Ryan, R., Steger, M. (2018). Meaningfulness as satisfaction of autonomy,
competence,  relatedness,  and  beneficence:  Comparing  the  four  satisfactions
and positive affect as predictors of meaning in life. Journal of Happiness Stu-
dies, 19, 1261–1282.
Martin, P., Priest, S. (1986). Understanding the adventure experience. Journal of Ad-
venture Education, 3(1), 18–21.
Maslow, A. (1986). Motywacja i osobowość. Warszawa: Instytut PAX
Masten, A.S. (2001). Ordinary magic: Resilience processes in development. The Ame-
rican Psychologist, 56, 227–238.
May, R. (1994). Odwaga tworzenia. Poznań: Dom Wydawniczy Rebis.
Mayer, F.S., Frantz, C.M. (2004). The Connectedness to Nature Scale: A measure
of individuals’ feeling in community with nature. Journal of Environmental Psy-
chology, 24, 504–515.
Maas,  J.,  Verheij,  R.A.,  de  Vries,  S.,  Spreeuwenberg,  P.,  Schellevis,  F.G.,  Groene -
wegen, P.P. (2009). Morbidity is related to a green living environment. Journal
of Epidemiology and Community Health, 63, 967–973.
MacGregor, A.L., Woodman, T., Hardy, L. (2014). Risk is good for you: An investi-
gation of the processes and outcomes associated with high-risk sport. Journal
of Exercise, Movement, and Sport, 46(1), 175.
Marsh, H.W. (1998). Age and gender effects in physical selfconcepts for adolescent
elite  athletes  and  nonathletes:  A  multicohort–multioccasion  design.  Journal
of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 20, 237–259.
Matos, M.G., Santos, A., Fauvelet, C., Marta, F., Evangelista, E.S., Ferreira, J., Moita,
M., Conibear, T., Mattila, M. (2017). Surfing for Social Integration: Mental He -
alth and Well-Being promotion through Surf Therapy among Institutionalized
Young People. Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health Care, 4, 1–6.
McCabe, S., Johnson, S. (2013). The happiness factor in tourism: subjective well-
-being and social tourism. Annals Tourism Research, 41, 42–65.
McMahan, E.A., Estes, D. (2015). The effect of contact with natural environments
on positive and negative affect: A meta-analysis. The Journal of Positive Psycho-
logy, 10, 507–519.
Millington,  K.,  Locke,  T.,  Locke,  A.  (2001).  Occasional  studies:  adventure  travel.
Travel and Tourism Analyst, 4, 65–97. 144 Bibliografia
Miler, W. (2000). The Mystery of Courage. Cambridge, Massachusetts, US: Harvard
University Press.
Monasterio, E., Cloninger, C.R. (2019). Self-Transcendence in mountaineering and
BASE jumping. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1–6.
Morrison, A.B., Schöffl, V.R. (2007). Review of the physiological responses to rock
climbing in young climbers. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 41, 852–861.
Mortlock, C. (1984). The Adventure Alternative. Cicerone Press: Cumbria, UK.
Murgatroyd, S., Rushton, C., Apter, M., Ray, C. (1978). The development of the Telic
Dominance Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 42(5), 519–528.
Müller, A., Weigl, M. (2015). Selection, optimization, and compensation at work in
relation to age. W: N.A. Pachana (red.), Encyclopedia of geropsychology (s. 1–7).
Singapore: Springer..
Newman, D., Tay. L, Diener, E. (2014). Leisure and subjective well-being: a model
of psychological mechanisms as mediating factors. Journal of Happiness Stu-
dies, 15(3), 555–578.
Nisbet, E.K., Zelenski, J.M. (2011). Underestimating nearby nature: Affective fore-
casting errors obscure the happy path to sustainability. Psychological Science,
22, 1101–1106.
Norton, C.L., Watt, T.T. (2014). Exploring the impact of a wilderness-based positive
youth development program for urban youth. Journal of Experiential Educa-
tion, 37, 335–350.
O’Byrne, K.K., Lopez, S.J., Peterson, S. (2000). Building a theory of courage: A pre-
cursor to change? Paper presented at the 108th Annual Convention of the Ame-
rican Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
O’Connell, N. (1997). Więcej niż ryzyko. Katowice: Wydawnictwo STAPIS.
O’Connell, T.S. (2010). The effects of age, gender and level of experience on mo-
tivation to sea kayak. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning,
10(1), 51–66.
O’Connor,  K.,  Chamberlain,  K.  (1996).  Dimensions  of  life  meaning:  A  qualitative
investigation at mid-life. British Journal of Psychology, 87, 461–477.
Ohly, H., White, M.P., Wheeler, B.W., Bethel, A., Ukoumunne, O.C., Nikolaou, V.,
Garside, R. (2016). Attention Restoration Theory: A systematic review of the
attention  restoration  potential  of  exposure  to  natural  environments.  Journal
of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B, 19, 305–343.
Oleś, P.K. (1995). Kryzys połowy życia u mężczyzn. Lublin: RW KUL.
Oleś, P.K. (2008). Wprowadzenie do psychologii osobowości. Warszawa: Wydawnic-
two Scholar.
Olszański, R. (2006). Ocena zagrożenia chorobą dekompresyjną u nurków. Warsza-
wa: WIM.
Opatz, J.P. (1986). Stevens Point: A longstanding program for students at a Midwe-
stern University. American Journal of Health Promotion, 1(1), 60–67.145 Bibliografia
Opoczyńska, M. (1993). Wprowadzenie do psychologii egzystencjalnej. Kraków: Wy-
dawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego.
Ownsworth, T., Nash, K. (2015). Existential Well-Being and Meaning Making in the
Context of Primary Brain Tumor: Conceptualization and Implications for Inte-
rvention. Frontiers Oncology, 5, 96.
Palfai, T.P., Salovey, P. (1992). The influence of affect on self-focused attention: Con -
ceptual and methodological issues. Consciousness and Cognition: An Internatio-
nal Journal, 1(4), 306–339.
Patterson, I.R., Pan, R. (2007). The motivations of baby boomers to participate in
adventure tourism and the implications for adventure tourism providers. Annals
of Leisure Research, 10(1), 26–53.
Pawłowski, R. (2006). Smak gór. Katowice: Wydwnictwo STAPIS.
Park, N.S., Lee, B.S., Sun, F. (2011). Typologies o religiousness/spirituality: Implica-
tions for health and well-being. Journal of Religion and Health, 52(3), 828–839.
Pierskalla, C.D., Lee, M.A., Stein, T.V., Anderson, D.H., Nickerson, R. (2004). Under-
standing relationships among recreation opportunities: A meta analysis of nine
studies. Leisure Sciences, 26, 163–180.
Pijpers, J., Oudejans, R., Holsheimer, F., Bakker, F. (2003). Anxiety – performance
relationships in climbing: A process-oriented approach. Psychology of Sport and
Exercise, 4, 283–304.
Platon (1991). Laches. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Recto.
Pomfret, G. (2006). Mountaineering adventure tourists: a conceptual framework for
research. Tourism Management, 27(1), 113–123.
Paloutzian, R.F., Ellison, C.W. (1982). Loneliness, Spiritual Well-Being and the Qu-
ality of Life. W: L.A. Peplau, D. Perlman (red.), Loneliness: A Sourcebook of Cur-
rent Theory, Research and Therapy (s. 224–236). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Priest, S. (1990). The adventure experience paradigm. W: J.C. Miles, S. Priest (red.),
Adventure Recreation (s. 157–162). State College PA: Venture Publishing.
Priest,  S.  (1999).  The  adventure  experience  paradigm  (wyd.  2).  W:  J.C.  Miles,
S. Priest (red.), Adventure Recreation (s. 159–162). State College PA: Venture
Publishing.
Pryor, A., Carpenter, C., Norton, C.L., Kirchner, J. (2012). Emerging insights: Pro-
ceedings of the fifth international adventure therapy conference. Prague, Czech
Republic: European Science & Art Publishing.
Próchniak, P. (2005). Podejmowanie ryzyka a sens życia człowieka. Słupsk: Wydaw-
nictwo Akademii Pomorskiej.
Próchniak, P. (2008). Stosunek do śmierci osób uprawiających ekstremalne sporty.
Roczniki Psychologiczne, 11, 95–104.
Próchniak, P. (2011). Psychological profile of Polish skydivers. Psychological Reports,
108(1), 263–273.146 Bibliografia
Próchniak, P. (2013). Poszukiwacze przygód w trudnych warunkach pogodowych.
Poznań: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Contact Press.
Próchniak, P. (2013a). Thrill and Adventure Seekers: affective organization of perso-
nal meaning of extreme weather. American Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(6),
75–80.
Próchniak,  P.  (2016).  Need  for  Achievement  in  Outdoor  Recreation:  Scale  Con-
struction and Validation. Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Science, 2(4),
142–151.
Próchniak, P., Zoglovek, H., Aleksandrovich, M. (2016). Outdoor adventure: study
of activities and attitudes in wild nature in Norway and Poland. International
Adventure Conference, Tralle, Ireland.
Próchniak, P. (2017). Wilderness Courage Scale. Journal of Human Performance in
Extreme Environment, 13, 1–10.
Próchniak, P. (2017). Rekreacja przygodowa. Uwarunkowania podmiotowe. Warsza-
wa: Wydawnictwo Scholar.
Puchan, H. (2005). Living „extreme”: Adventure sports, media and commercializa-
tion. Journal of Communication Management, 9(2), 171–178.
Putman, D. (1997). Psychological Courage. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
Quammen, D. (2001). End of line. National Geographic, 2, 74–103.
Raihani, N.J., Bshary, R. (2012). A positive effect of flowers rather than eye images
in a large-scale, cross-cultural dictator game. Proceedings of the Royal Society
B: Biological Sciences, 279, 3556–3564.
Rachman, S. (1984). Fear and courage. Behavior Therapy, 15(1), 109–120.
Rate, C.R., Clarke, J.A, Lindsay, D.R., Sternberg, R.J. (2007). Implicit theories of co-
urage. Journal of Positive Psychology, 2(2), 80–98.
Reker, G.T., Woo, L.C. (2011). Personal meaning orientations and psychosocial ada-
ptation in older adults. SAGE Open, 1(11), 1-10.
Richardson, G.E. (2002). The Metatheory of resilience and resiliency. Journal of Cli-
nical Psychology, 58, 307–321.
Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and adolescent self-image. Princeton: Princeton Uni-
versity Press.
Rosenbloom, T. (2003). Risk evaluation and risky behavior of high and low sensa-
tion seekers. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 31(4),
375–386.
Rossi, B., Ceratti, L. (1993). The sensation seeking in mountain athletes as assessed
by Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scale. International Journal of Sport Psy-
chology, 24, 417–431.
Roszak, T. (1992). The voice of the earth. New York: Simon & Schuster
Roberson, D.N., Babic, V. (2009). Remedy for modernity: Experiences of walkers and
hikers on Medvednica Mountain. Leisure Studies, 28, 105–112.147 Bibliografia
Robinson, D.W. (1992). A descriptive model of enduring risk recreation involvement.
Journal of Leisure Research, 24(1), 52–63.
Roberti,  J.W.,  Storch,  E.A.,  Bravata,  E.  (2003).  Further  psychometric  support  for
the  Sensation  Seeking  Scale–Form  V.  Journal  of  Personality  Assessment,  81,
3291–3292.
Rutter, M. (2006). Implications of Resilience Concepts for Scientific Understanding.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1094, 1–12.
Ryan, R., Deci, E. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: a review of rese-
arch  on  hedonic  and  eudaimonic  well-being.  Annual  Review  Psychology,  52,
141–166.
Ryan R.M., Weinstein, N., Bernstein, J., Brown, K.W., Mistretta, L., Gagné, M. (2010). Vi-
talizing effects of being outdoors and in nature. Journal of Environmental Psycho-
logy, 30, 159–168.
Ryff, C.D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning
of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57,
1069–1081.
Ryff, C.D. (2013). Psychological well-being revisited: Advances in the science and
practice of eudaimonia. Psychotherapy & Psychosomatics, 83, 10–28.
Ryff, C.D., Singer, B.H. (2006). Best news yet on the six-factor model of well-be-
ing. Social Science Research, 35(4), 1103–1119.
Sanchez, X., Boschker, M., Llewellyn, D. (2010). Pre-performance psychological sta-
tes and performance in an elite climbing competition. Scandinavian Journal
of Medicine and Science in Sports, 20, 356–363.
Sandman, P. (1990). Facing Public Outrage. NAPEC Quarterly, 1(1), 1–10.
Scheier, M.F., Carver, C.S. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: Assessment and
implications  of  generalized  outcome  expectancies.  Health  Psychology,  4(3),
219–247.
Schimmack,  U.,  Schupp,  J.,  Wagner,  G.G.  (2008).  The  influence  of  environment
and personality on the affective and cognitive component of subjective well-be-
ing. Social Indicators Research, 89(1), 41–60.
Schnell,  T.  (2009).  The  Sources  of  Meaning  and  Meaning  in  Life  Questionnaire
(SoMe): Relations to demographics and well-being. The Journal of Positive Psy-
chology, 4, 483–499.
Schüler, J., Nakamura, J. (2013). Does flow experience lead to risk? How and for
whom. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 5(3), 311–331.
Schwarz, N., Clore, G.L. (1983). Mood, misattribution, and judgments of well-being:
Informative and directive functions of affective states. Journal of Personality
and Social Psychology, 45(3), 513–523.
Schwarzer, R. (1998). General Perceived Self-Efficacy in 14 Cultures, An Electronic
Volume, Produced for the European Health Psychology Society.148 Bibliografia
Seligman, M. (1995). Optymizmu można się nauczyć. Jak zmienić swoje myślenie
i swoje życie. Poznań: Media Rodzina.
Seligman, M. (2002). Authentic happiness: using the new positive psychology to re-
alize your potential for lasting fulfillment. New York: Free Press.
Seligman,  M.E.,  Csikszentmihalyi,  M.  (2014).  Positive  psychology:  An  introduc-
tion (s. 279–298). New York, NY: Springer Netherlands.
Seligman,  M.E.P.  (2011).  Flourish: A Visionary New Understanding of Happiness
and Well-being. New York: Free Press.
Sharpe, E.K. (2005). „Going above and beyond”: the emotional labor of Adventure
guides. Journal of Leisure Research, 37, 29–50.
Shiota, M.N., Keltner, D., Mossman, A. (2007). The nature of awe: Elicitors, appra-
isals, and effects on self-concept. Cognition and Emotion, 21, 944–963.
Slanger, E., Rudestam, K. (1997). Motivation and disinhibition in high risk sports: Sen-
sation seeking and self-efficacy. Journal of Research in Personality, 31, 355–374.
Snyder,  C.R.  (1995).  Conceptualizing,  measuring,  and  nurturing  hope.  Journal
of Counseling & Development, 73, 355–360.
Snyder, C.R. (2005). Hope and the meaningful life: Theoretical and empirical asso-
ciations between goal directed thinking and life-meaning. Journal of Social and
Clinical Psychology, 24(3), 401–421.
Snyder,  C.R.,  Pulvers,  K.M.  (2001).  Dr.  Seuss,  the  coping  machine,  and  „Oh  the
places you’ll go”. W: C.R. Snyder (red.), Coping with stress: Effective people and
processes (s. 3–29). London: Oxford Press.
Sokołowska, J. (1993). Przewidywania i wybory a przekonanie o własnej kontroli.
Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Instytutu Psychologii PAN.
Stark, P. (2003). Granice wytrzymałości: gdy człowiek ociera się o śmierć. Warszawa:
Fokus.
Steger, M.F., Frazier, P., Oishi, S., Kaler, M. (2006). The Meaning in Life Questionna-
ire: Assessing the presence of and search for meaning in life. Journal of Counse-
ling Psychology, 53, 80–93.
Stenling,  A.,  Tafvelin,  S.  (2014).  Transformational  leadership  and  well-being  in
sports: The mediating role of need satisfaction. Journal of Applied Sport Psycho-
logy, 26(2), 182–196.
Studenski, R. (2004). Ryzyko i ryzykowanie. Katowice: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu
Śląskiego.
Sullivan, W.C., Kuo, F.E., Depooter, S.F. (2004). The fruit of urban nature: Vital ne-
ighborhood space. Environment and Behavior, 36, 678–700.
Swarbrooke, J., Beard, C., Leckie, S., Pomfret, G. (2003). Adventure tourism: the
new frontier. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Tajet-Foxell,  B.,  Rose,  F.D.  (1995).  Pain  and  pain  tolerance  in  professional  ballet
dancers. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 29(1), 31–34.149 Bibliografia
Taylor, D. (1995). A comparison of college athletic participants and nonparticipants
on self-esteem. Journal of College Student Development, 36, 444–451.
Terelak, J. (2001). Psychologia stresu. Bydgoszcz: Wydawnictwo „Branta”.
Tesarz, J., Schuster, A.K., Hartmann, M. (2012). Pain perception in athletes com-
pared to normally active controls: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Pain,
153(6), 1253–1262.
Tillich, P. (1994). Męstwo bycia. Poznań: Dom Wydawniczy Rebis.
Tsaur, S.-H., Lin, W.-R., Cheng, T.-M. (2013). Toward a structural model of challenge
experience in adventure recreation. Journal of Leisure Research, 47(3), 322–336.
Tugade, M.M., Fredrickson, B.L. (2004). Resilient individuals use positive emotions
to bounce back from negative emotional experiences. Journal of Personality and
Social Psychology, 86, 320–333.
Twigger-Ross,  C.L.,  Uzzell,  D.L.  (1996).  Place  and  identity  processes.  Journal
of Environmental Psychology, 16(3), 205–220.
Uysal, M., Sirgy, M., Woo, E., Kim, H. (2016). Quality of life (QOL) and well-being
research in tourism. Tourism Management, 53, 244–261.
Wagner, A.M., Houlihan, D. (1994). Sensation seeking trait anxiety in hang-glider
pilots and golfers. Personality and Individual Differences, 16, 975–977.
Wagnild, G.M. (2009). The Resilience Scale User’s Guide for the US English version
of The Resilience Scale and The 14-Item Resilience Scale (RS-14). Worden, MT:
The Resilience Center.
Wagnild,  G.M.,  Young,  H.M.  (1993).  Development  and  psychometric  evaluation
of the resilience scale. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 1(2), 165–178.
Walesa, Cz. (1988). Podejmowanie ryzyka przez dzieci i młodzież. Badania rozwojo-
we. Lublin: RW KUL.
Walton, D.N. (1986). Courage: A philosophical investigation. Berkeley: University
of California Press.
Watson, D., Clark, L.A., Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief me-
asures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of Personality
and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070.
Watson, A.E., Pulford, B.D. (2004). Personality differences in high risk sports ama-
teurs and instructors. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 99, 83–94.
Waterman, A.S. (2008). Reconsidering happiness: A eudaimonist’s perspective. Jo-
urnal of Positive Psychology, 3, 234–252.
Wells, N.M., Evans, G.W. (2003). Nearby nature: A buffer of life stress among rural
children. Environment and Behavior, 35(3), 311–330.
Weng, P., Chiang, Y. (2014). Psychological Restoration through Indoor and Outdoor
Leisure Activities. Journal of Leisure. Research, 46, 203–217.
White, M., Alcock, I., Wheeler, B.W., Depledge, M.H. (2013). Would you be happier
living in a greener urban area? A fixed-effects analysis of panel data. Psycholo-
gical Science, 24, 920–928.150 Bibliografia
Wilson, E.O. (1984). Biophilia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Wilson, E.O. (1993). Biophilia and the Conservation Ethic. W: S. Keller, E. Wilson
(red.), The Biophilia Hypothesis (s. 31–41). Washington: The Island Press.
Wilson, E.O. (2003). Przyszłość życia. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Zysk i S-ka.
Wilson, I., McDermott, H., Munir, F., Hogervorst, E. (2013). Injuries, ill-health and
fatalities in white water rafting and white water paddling. Sports Medicine, 43,
65–75.
Willig, C. (2008). A phenomenological investigation of the experience of taking par-
tin extreme sport. Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 690–702.
Woodard, C.R. (2004). Hardiness and the concept of courage. Consulting Psychology
Journal: Practice and Research, 56, 173–185.
Woodard, C., Pury, C.L.S. (2007). The construct of courage: Categorization and me-
asurement. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 59, 135–147.
Woodman, T., Huggins, M., Le Scanff, C., Cazenave, N. (2009). Alexithymia deter-
mines the anxiety experienced in skydiving. Journal of Affective Disorders, 116,
134–138.
Woodman, T., Hardy, L., Barlow, M., Le Scanff, C. (2010). Motives for prolonged
engagement high-risk sports: an agentic emotion regulation perspective. Psy-
chology of Sport and Exercise, 11, 345–352.
Van den Berg, A.E., Hartig, T., Staats, H. (2007). Preference for Nature in Urbanized
Societies: Stress, Restoration, and the Pursuit of Sustainability. Journal of Social
Issues, 63(1), 79–96.
Van den Berg, A.E., Maas, J., Verheij, R.A., Groenewegen, P.P. (2010). Green space
as a buffer between stressful life events and health. Social Science and Medici-
ne, 70(8), 1203–1210.
Van den Berg, A.E., van den Berg, C.G. (2011). A comparison of children with ADHD
in a natural and built setting. Child: Care, Health and Development, 37, 430–439.
Vallerand, R.J. (2008). On the psychology of passion: In search of what makes pe-
ople’s lives most worth. Canadian Psychology, 49(1), 1–13.
Vallerand, R.J. (2012). The role of passion in sustainable psychological well-being.
Psychological Well-Being: Theory, Research, and Practice, 2, 1–21.
Vallerand,  R.J.  (2015).  Psychology  of  Passion:  A  dualistic  model.  New  York,  NY:
Oxford University Press.
Vallerand, R.J., Junot, A., Ywan, P., Gousse-Lessard, A. (2015). Passion for outdoor
activities and environmental behaviors. Materiały konferencyjne.
Varley,  P.  (2006).  Confecting  adventure  and  playing  with  meaning:  the  adventure
commodification continuum. Journal of Sport and Tourism, 11, 173–194.
Varley, P.J. (2011). Sea kayakers at the margins: the liminoid character of contempo-
rary adventures. Leisure Studies, 30, 85–98.
Varley, P., Semple, T. (2015). Nordic slow adventure: Explorations in time and natu-
re. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 15(1–2), 73–90.Veenhoven, R. (1991). Is happiness relative? Social Indicators Research, 24(1), 1–34.
Velarde, M.D., Fry, G., Tveit, M. (2007). Health effects of viewing landscapes – Land-
scape types in environmental psychology. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 6,
199–212.
Yates F.J., Stone, E.R. (1992). The risk construct. W: J.F. Yates (red.), Risk-taking
behavior (s. 1–25). New York: Wiley.
Ulrich, R.S. (1979). Visual landscapes and psychological well-being. Landscape Re-
search, 4(1), 17–23.
Ulrich, R.S. (1984). View through a window may influence recovery. Science, 224,
224–225.
Ulrich, R.S., Simons, R.F., Losito, B.D., Fiorito, E., Miles, M.A., Zelson, M. (1991).
Stress recovery during exposure to natural and urban environments. Journal
of Environmental Psychology, 11(3), 201–230.
Zuckerman, M. (1979). Sensation seeking: Beyond the optimal level of arousal. Hil-
lsdale, NJ: Eribaum.
Zuckerman, M. (1991). One person’s stress is another person’s pleasure. W: Ch.D. Spiel-
berger,  I.G.  Sarason  (red.),  Stress  and  emotion:  Anxiety,  anger,  and  curiosity 
(s. 31–45). New York: Hemisphere Publishing Corp.
Zuckerman, M. (1994). Behavioral expressions and biosocial bases of sensation se-
eking. New York, Cambridge: University Press.

Napisz opinię

Uwaga: HTML nie jest przetłumaczalny!
    Zły           Dobry

Najczęściej kupowane